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# كورس CMA PART 1 - الوحدة 15

كورس UNIT 15 : CMA PART 1
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MR:mohamed cma
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(15.1) Variance Analysis Overview
1) Uses of a Budget
2) Variance Analysis
3) Assignment of Responsibility
4) Overview of Variances
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(15.2) Static and Flexible Budget Variances
1) The Static Budget Variance
2) Flexible Budget and Sales-Volume Variances
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(15.3) Direct Materials Variances
1) direct materials flexible budget variance
2) Direct Materials Price Variance
3) Direct Materials Quantity Variance
4) Service Organizations
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(15.4) Direct Labor Variances
1) direct labor variance
2) Direct Labor Rate Variance
3) Direct Labor Efficiency Variance
4) Service Organizations
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(15.5) Mix and Yield Variances
1) substitutable inputs
2) materials mix variance and materials yield variance
3) variances calculation
4) mix variance
5) yield variance
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(15.7) Comprehensive Example
1) Summary of Variance Formulas
2) Comprehensive Example
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(15.8) Sales Variances
1) Single Product Sales Variances
2) Multiproduct Sales Variances
G.2020G.2022mr.amro taison
11.115.1lec. 22
11.215.2lec. 22
11.315.3lec. 22
11.415.4lec. 22
11.515.5lec. 22
11.615.6lec. 23
11.715.7lec. 23
11.815.8lec. 23
1- What is meant by variance analysis, and variance?
* Variance analysis: is the basis used for any system used in order to evaluate performance using a budget.
* Variance: is the difference between budgeted and actual amounts
2- What is the difference between favorable and unfavorable variance?
* Favorable variance occurs when a company generates revenues greater than those budgeted for, or the company's actual costs are less than those budgeted.
* Unfavorable variance occurs when a company generates revenues that are lower than those budgeted for, or the company's actual costs are greater than those budgeted.
3- What are the Advantages of Variance Analysis?
* Identifies areas where actual results are different from budget
* Provides a basis for investigation
* Promotes accountability among employees
* Evaluates the performance of employees
And more...
4- What are the Disadvantages of Variance Analysis?
* Identification of the problem requires so much time, that management cannot take effective action.
* The focus of variance analysis is on past events only, without looking at the future events
5- What are the requirements for calculating static budget variance?
* The static budget
* Actual results of the period
6- What is the difference between Ideal standards and Practical standards?
1) Ideal standards: are standard costs under optimal conditions
2) Practical standards: the expected performance to be achieved with an allowance for normal spoilage, waste, and downtime.
7- What is the equation of static budget variance?
Static budget variance = Actual results – Static budget = (AQ × AP) – (SQ × SP)
8- What is the equation of direct materials price variance?
(Actual units produced × Actual materials per unit) × (Actual price – Standard price)
9- What is purchase price variance?
It is a non-manufacturing variance that measures the difference between:
* The amount that the company paid for all units of materials purchased during a specific period, and
* The amount expected to be paid by the company
10- What is the equation of direct materials quantity variance?
Standard price × [(Actual units produced × Actual materials per unit) - (Actual units produced × Standard materials per unit)]
for simplicity
* [Standard price] ----> A
* [Actual units produced × Actual materials per unit] ---> B
* [Actual units produced × Standard materials per unit] ---> C
# direct labor efficiency variance = A × (B - C)
11- What is the equation of direct labor rate variance?
(Actual units produced × Actual labor hours per unit) × (Actual price – Standard price)
12- What is the equation of direct labor efficiency variance?
Standard price × [(Actual units produced × Actual labor hours per unit) - ( Actual units produced × Standard labor hours per unit)]
for simplicity
* [Standard price] ----> A
* [Actual units produced × Actual labor hours per unit] ---> B
* [Actual units produced × Standard labor hours per unit] ---> C
# direct labor efficiency variance = A × (B - C)
13- What does the unfavorable labor efficiency variance refer to?
That the workers take more time than expected in the production process (low efficiency)
14- What does the favorable labor efficiency variance refer to?
That the workers take less time than expected in the production process (highly efficient)
15- What is meant by a favorable (unfavorable) materials mix variance?
More (less) materials were used at a lower price than budgeted materials
16- What is meant by a favorable (unfavorable) materials yield variance?
Less (more) materials than those in the budget were used to produce the output
17- How is the weighted-average standard price determined?
By using
* The standard mix of inputs at standard prices (SMSP)
* The actual mix of inputs at standard prices (AMSP)
18- What is the equation of Mix variance?
Mix variance = ATQ × (SMSP – AMSP)
19- What are the components of total overhead variance?
The total overhead variance consists of four variances. Two variances are calculated for the variable overhead, and two variances are for the fixed overhead.
20- How is the total variable overhead variance calculated?
It is the difference between
* The amount applied based on the budgeted application rate and the standard input allowed for the actual quantity.
21- How is the total fixed overhead variance calculated?
The difference between:
* The product of the budgeted application rate and the standard input allowed for the actual output.
22- What is the benefit of variance analysis?
For evaluating the production function, and selling function.
For example: If the actual sales differ from the budgeted amount of sales, the difference may be due to either sales price variance, or sales volume variance
23- What is the sales price variance (for a single product)?
It is the change in contribution margin, which is only attributable to the change in the prices of sales (with no change in sales volume).
Sales price variance = (AP – SP) × AQ
24- What is the sales volume variance (for a single product)?
It is the change in contribution margin, which is only attributable to the difference between actual unit sales, and standard unit sales.
Sales volume variance = (AQ – SQ) × SCM
25- What is the sales quantity variance?
It is the difference between the standard contribution margin that is based on actual unit sales, and the standard contribution margin that is based on standard unit sales
26- What is the equation of sales mix variance?
Sales mix variance = SUCM × [AQ – (Total AQ × Standard mix %)]
mohamed ashry

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